Diet for diabetes is not only to exclude from food, sugar, sweets and sweet dishes. Each patient should have an individually composed diet with a certain amount of sugar, fat, protein and caloric content, so that the blood sugar level is as close to normal as possible so that the fat metabolism is not disturbed, so that the patient has an ideal weight and keeps it. Simple sugars should be eliminated from the diet, which are rapidly absorbed, causing a sharp rise in the sugar content in the blood and then its decrease. The total amount of carbohydrates should be 55-60%, with the predominance of complex sugars (starches), fats – 25-30%, with a preponderance of vegetable fats, proteins – 15-20%.
if I do not follow a diet
Diet is the basis of treatment. If it is not respected, there is a risk of poor compensation with the risk of complications. If you do not follow the diet and increase the dose of drugs or insulin, the patient may increase weight, cell insulin sensitivity may deteriorate, and the treatment of diabetes will fall into a vicious circle. The only way to avoid these complications is to adjust the diet in such a way as to normalize weight and maintain it.
If diabetes is treated correctly (with diet, medication, insulin), the person with diabetes can live a full life. But if it is not compensated, serious complications may arise , early or late. The earliest include: ketoacidosis – poisoning by fat decomposition products, diabetic hyperglycemic coma (sudden loss of consciousness) or hypoglycemia (disturbance of consciousness due to low blood sugar). These complications are often triggered by non-compliance with the diet, abnormal treatment or treatment regimen, and infectious diseases. Late complications are caused by prolonged inadequate control of blood sugar. These include damage to the eyes, kidneys, small vessels and nerves of the lower extremities (the so-called “diabetic foot”), in the latter case – with the danger of ulcers on the legs, up to the need for amputation. The digestive tract, heart, and sexual function may also be affected. Compensation of diabetes is extremely necessary during pregnancy. To compensate, you need active participation in the patient himself and regular self-control of blood sugar at home (self-monitoring).
Doing sports, working with diabetes mellitus
with diabetes, you can play sports, you can do physical work. Among diabetics, there were even outstanding athletes. Generally, physical education and increased physical activity are highly desirable, in particular for type II diabetes. It increases tissue sensitivity to insulin and helps maintain optimal weight. With large loads, you should consult with your doctor and prescribe a diet and insulin dose given the load (increase the dose of sugars, reduce the dose of insulin) so that it does not reach hypoglycemia (a strong reduction in sugar level). As for work, the diabetic should choose the type of activity with the ability to maintain the correct regimen and eat regularly, with even physical activity during the week. For patients with type I diabetes and the risk of hypoglycemia, occupations are unsuitablewhere the patient could harm himself or others – work at height, driving, building machines, etc.
In conclusion, we can say that diabetes mellitus is a serious disease, but if you follow the correct diet and treatment regimen, when properly prescribed treatment, the life of the patient is comparable to the life of healthy people.