Diplopia, developed in the beginning of the EOP, is associated with edema and dysfunction of extraocular muscles. Immunosuppressive and radiation therapy can reduce these manifestations. The diplopia developed in the inactive phase is associated with fibrosis and fatty degeneration of extraocular muscles and retro-bulbar tissue or scar adhesions on the surface of the muscles and can only be surgically removed. Diplopia can be transient or persistent, occur only in the evening with a significant visual load and other provoking factors, or occur when the eyes are led away in a certain direction.
Permanent diplopia or diplopia that occurs when reading, significantly reduce the efficiency and quality of life. Ptosis and dystopia of the eyeball develop much less frequently after surgery. Such rare complications as liquorrhea, infection of the central nervous system (CNS), damage to the eye or optic nerve, cerebral vasospasm, traumatic neuroma, damage to the trigeminal nerve, intracranial hemorrhage are also described in the literature.
Modern algorithms imply bone decompression of the orbit and further sequential elimination of strabismus and diplopia, correction of eyelid retraction, and aesthetic interventions on the eyelids and face. Each surgical intervention should be carried out taking into account the specific needs of the patient and is aimed not only at preventing blindness and restoring visual functions, but also at aesthetic rehabilitation.