Arterial hypertension occurs in more than 50% of patients with diabetes mellitus, primarily type 2 diabetes, and is a risk factor for developing coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, cardiac rhythm disturbances, and cardiovascular failure. The number of cases of lesions of the lower extremities with outcome in diabetic gangrene with subsequent amputation increases significantly. Arterial hypertension leads to the progression of nephropathy and retinopathy, premature disability and death in this category of patients from chronic renal failure. Arterial hypertension remains a serious problem for most countries, therefore the formation of risk groups of diabetic patients with arterial hypertension,hemorrhagic and lipid metabolism disorders in the initial stages of vascular lesions is extremely important for practical healthcare in order to rehabilitate, prevent the development of angiopathies and improve the quality of life of diabetes patients.
The incidence of diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension increases with age among residents of economically developed countries. The frequency of arterial hypertension (AH) and cardiovascular diseases associated with it among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), according to various authors, is 9.5 – 55%, compared with the general population of 1.6 – 4.1%. Arterial hypertension, according to the results of an epidemiological survey conducted in Moscow in 1994, 10 years after the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was more than 60%. For comparison, currently about 15 million Americans suffer from diabetes, with 90% of patients with type 2 diabetes, and arterial hypertension is found in this category of patients 2 times more often than in people without this metabolic disease. .More than half of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes at the time of diagnosis have arterial hypertension.
Arterial hypertension is an important, independent risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiovascular failure. About 80% of premature deaths due to diabetes and hypertension occur due to cardiovascular diseases. The proportion of mortality in hypertension in the structure of total mortality is 20-25%, and in patients with diabetes, it is 4-5 times higher.
Indeed, the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases in diabetes and hypertension includes a number of common etiological factors.
Obesity is an important factor in increasing the incidence of diabetes and hypertension. Abdominal obesity appears to be the most formidable risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and