In recent years, significant progress has been made in studying the genetic factors of hypertension and coronary artery disease. The role of genetic polymorphism in the development of arterial hypertension is widely discussed. Indeed, the role of genetic polymorphism in the development of arterial hypertension is highly probable. The relationship between diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension is due to the interaction of common hereditary and acquired factors, the presence of which is easily observed in families of patients with diabetes. Population studies show that in both types of diabetic patients, an increase in blood pressure is more often observed in the presence of familial susceptibility to arterial hypertension.
Thus, a genetic susceptibility to the development of arterial hypertension, assessed by the Na / Li rate of countertransport in erythrocytes and the presence of hereditary hypertension, was shown; the presence of a genetic defect transmembrane transport of cations; with the polymorphism of genes that regulate the synthesis of angiotensin-converting enzyme. It was found that the polymorphism of the insertion / deletion type ACE gene is associated with cardiovascular diseases, in particular with left ventricular hypertrophy, angina pectoris, and myocardial infarction in individuals who are not in the normal risk groups for body mass index (BMI ), the level of triglycerides and total cholesterol. It was shown that the D / D genotype is associated with an increased level of ACE in the blood and a predisposition to myocardial infarction, while genotype I / I, on the contrary, is protective, although this view is not shared by all researchers. Of particular interest are the results of studies demonstratingthat the mass index of the left ventricle in normal blood pressure was higher in patients with the genotype for the DD gene. The same relationship was maintained in hypertensive patients, and, consequently, atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy are associated with hypertension and myocardial infarction.
The interrelation of polymorphism of the paraoxonase enzyme gene with atherosclerotic changes in coronary vessels was also found in patients with type 2 DM (paraoxonase in high-density lipoprotein inactivates lipid peroxides in low-density lipoproteins, being a natural antiatherogenic factor).