Male Genital Gland Disease
The testicles are a paired glandular organ located in the moson ke. In men, the length of the testicle is 3-5 cm, width – 2-3 cm, and weight – 15-30 g. The testicles are covered with three membranes: the vaginal, located outside, albuminous and, finally, vascular, immediately adjacent to the parenchyma of the testicles. The connective tissue septa of the daughter separating the testicular parenchyma into many lobules deviate from the tunica albuginea. In each lobule there are convoluted and direct seminiferous tubules. The latter pass into larger efferent tubules, which unite into a tortuous duct, which passes into the ejaculatory duct, which opens into the urethra. The convoluted seminiferous tubules consist of spermatogenic epithelium and supporting cells (sustentocytes, Sertoli cells) that are rich in RNK and enzymes. They provide nourishment for spermatogenic cells. Spermatogenic cells undergo a series of successive changes and are transformed into spermatozoa.
Interstitial glandulocytes of the testicle (Leydig cells) are located in the interstitial tissue located between the tubules. The blood supply to the testicles is provided by the internal seed arteries, which are branches of the abdominal aorta. Venose
Naya blood flows through the uterine plexus and flows into the internal testicular vein. The latter on the right flows into the inferior vena cava, and on the left into the renal vein. Innervation of the testes is carried out by the fibers of the sympathetic nerves. Androgens, testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone, are formed in testicular glandulocytes.
The male sex hormone is testosterone, all other androgens are products of its metabolism (androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone, etoicholanolone). Under the influence of testosterone, the formation and growth of the external genital organs, the development of secondary sexual characteristics, growth and development of the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, formation of skeletal and muscular systems, increased protein anabolism, closure of growth zones in bones, etc., occur. Testosterone determines sexual attraction Testosterone inactivation occurs mainly in the liver, where it is converted into metabolic products. These products are excreted in the urine in the form of 17-COP.
Testicular function is under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary system. The maturation of spermatozoa occurs under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the secretion of androgens under the influence of the hormone stimulating interstitial cells (GSIC). The latter in women is called luteinizing hormone (LH).
The regulation of the functions of the sex glands by gonadotropic hormones is carried out on the basis of feedback.