Regulation of water-salt metabolism

  Maintaining the tone of the extracellular fluid in a very narrow range is extremely important for the full function of the cells of the body. Extracellular osmolarity regulates both the shape of the cell and

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  Maintaining the tone of the extracellular fluid in a very narrow range is extremely important for the full function of the cells of the body. Extracellular osmolarity regulates both the shape of the cell and

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Osmoreceptor system

About ne of the most important factors in the regulation of secretion of vasopressin is the plasma osmolality. Osmoreceptors located in the hypothalamus are extremely sensitive to changes in plasma osmolarity. Increasing its level by only

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About ne of the most important factors in the regulation of secretion of vasopressin is the plasma osmolality. Osmoreceptors located in the hypothalamus are extremely sensitive to changes in plasma osmolarity. Increasing its level by only

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Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

In addition to the mechanisms of the osmotic sensor and effector, water-salt metabolism in the human body is regulated by the mechanisms of the volumetric sensor and effector, the main of which is the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone

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In addition to the mechanisms of the osmotic sensor and effector, water-salt metabolism in the human body is regulated by the mechanisms of the volumetric sensor and effector, the main of which is the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone

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Central diabetes insipidus

Etiology  Diabetes mellitus develops due to inadequate synthesis and / or secretion of antidiuretic hormone (central form), or the inability of the kidneys to respond adequately to circulating vasopressin (renal form). In endocrinological practice, diabetes

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Etiology  Diabetes mellitus develops due to inadequate synthesis and / or secretion of antidiuretic hormone (central form), or the inability of the kidneys to respond adequately to circulating vasopressin (renal form). In endocrinological practice, diabetes

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Neurosurgical interventions

One of the most common causes of central diabetes insipidus in children is the neurosurgical destruction of vasopressin neurons after surgery on the hypothalamic-pituitary area. It is important to distinguish polyuria associated with postoperative central

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One of the most common causes of central diabetes insipidus in children is the neurosurgical destruction of vasopressin neurons after surgery on the hypothalamic-pituitary area. It is important to distinguish polyuria associated with postoperative central

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Infiltrative, autoimmune and infectious diseases

Histiocytosis of Langerhans cells and lymphocytic hypophysitis are the most common infiltrative diseases causing diabetes insipidus. About 10% of patients with histocytosis have diabetes insipidus diabetes, and polyuria may precede the detection of intracranial damage

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Histiocytosis of Langerhans cells and lymphocytic hypophysitis are the most common infiltrative diseases causing diabetes insipidus. About 10% of patients with histocytosis have diabetes insipidus diabetes, and polyuria may precede the detection of intracranial damage

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Congenital anatomical defects

Anatomical defects of the midbrain, such as septo-optical dysplasia with the agenesis of the corpus callosum, holoprocephalus, etc., may be associated with central diabetes insipidus. These patients do not always have external signs of cranial-anomalies. Primary

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Anatomical defects of the midbrain, such as septo-optical dysplasia with the agenesis of the corpus callosum, holoprocephalus, etc., may be associated with central diabetes insipidus. These patients do not always have external signs of cranial-anomalies. Primary

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Clinical manifestation

In newborns and infants, the clinical picture of diabetes insipidus is significantly different from that in adults, and difficult enough to diagnose. These patients cannot express a desire for increased fluid intake, and if the

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In newborns and infants, the clinical picture of diabetes insipidus is significantly different from that in adults, and difficult enough to diagnose. These patients cannot express a desire for increased fluid intake, and if the

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Laboratory research

If all the history and clinical status data indicate the presence of pathological polyuria / polydipsia, the following blood and urine parameters should be investigated on an outpatient basis: serum osmolarity; serum sodium, potassium, calcium,

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If all the history and clinical status data indicate the presence of pathological polyuria / polydipsia, the following blood and urine parameters should be investigated on an outpatient basis: serum osmolarity; serum sodium, potassium, calcium,

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Fluid restriction test

The test with the restriction of liquids allows you to establish the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus and to conduct a differential diagnosis between nephrogenic and central non-diabetes mellitus. The principle of this test is that

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The test with the restriction of liquids allows you to establish the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus and to conduct a differential diagnosis between nephrogenic and central non-diabetes mellitus. The principle of this test is that

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