Hermaphroditism

Hermaphroditism

True hermaphroditism is a disease in which the patient has both an ovary and a testicle. The disease meets very rarely. Etiology. The causes of the disease are unknown. Pathogenesis. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully disclosed. One thing temporary development of male and female genitals waving with mosaicism 46XX / 46XY. With the development of the disease in patients with a 46XX karyotype, it is suggested that unrecognized mosaicism in various tissues of organisms nizm. Pathological anatomy….

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DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

In the study of lame som complex revealed a karyotype 46XY. Floor chrome Tin is negative. On the pneumogynecogram ovaries and uterus are absent. Detect testicles with localization more often in the external openings of the inguinal canals, sometimes in the abdominal cavity or the labia majora. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Diagnosis of the syndrome testicular feminization set on the basis of wives human phenotype in the presence of male gonads, as well as data X-ray diagnostics (absence of uterus…

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OFIRENIE

OFIRENIE

Obesity is a disease of the body, characterized by fat accumulation in subcutaneous tissue and tissue due to metabolic disorders. Obesity may be independent disease (normal or true – alimentar common obesity, constitutional hereditary obesity) or act as a symptom of the diseases most often caused is a dysfunction of the endocrine glands or a lesion CNS. Normal obesity is very common. Among women the frequency of obesity reaches 5 0%, in men – 30%, and in children – 10%…

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Pathogenesis.

Pathogenesis.

The main pathogenetic role in the development of obesity plays a dysfunction of the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus and first of all the nerve formations in posterior hypothalamus, which are part of the food center – ventromedial and ventrolateral nuclei. Defeat ventro medial nucleus – “centers of satiety” – leads to excitation ventrolateral nuclei – “appetite centers.” Increased the step of food (carbohydrates, fats) due to the excitement of pi ganglion center leads to a lack of active physical…

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Graves’ disease and pregnancy

Graves’ disease and pregnancy

Graves’ disease and pregnancy It is difficult to manage women with Graves’ disease during pregnancy. In the event that Graves’ disease is detected before pregnancy, then there is a personal systematization of treatment taking into account the reproductive plans of women, and optimal in this case will be prevention from pregnancy until the euthyroid status is reached and the antibody to the TSH receptor disappears. But life sometimes complicates our treatment regimens, as in the following clinical example. It should…

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Physiological tremor

Physiological tremor

This ailment can occur throughout the body and is an involuntary jitter or oscillation of a specific part of the body, triggered by synchronous or alternating muscle contractions. Below are several varieties of this ailment. Physiological tremor is a postural tremor that appears in the neck, hands, or other area of ​​the body, and, as a rule, is not felt by the subject. Accented hand tremor arises against fatigue, anxiety, thyrotoxicosis, hypothermia, alcohol abstinence, hypoglycemia, arsenic poisoning, mercury salts, lead,…

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Tremor of the child’s hands

Tremor of the child’s hands

This ailment in a child up to a year can be caused by partial unformed centers of nerve endings, responsible for the actions of the body. Concentration in the blood of norepinephrine increases with the emotional reactions of the baby, which leads to the strain of muscle fibers and the nervous vibration of various parts of the muscles. The reasons for the disruption of the development of the centers of nerve endings are often: the transferred infectious diseases of a…

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Treatment of hand tremors

Treatment of hand tremors

Trembling, shaking hands are frequent signs of various ailments, such as Parkinson’s disease, hepatolenticular degeneration, torsion dystonia, multiple sclerosis, liver cirrhosis, thyrotoxicosis, intoxication with drugs, metals, drugs, etc. How to treat tremors of the hands, how to get rid of tremors of the hands, if the tremor is caused by one of the aforementioned ailments? In the first turn, drug therapy is aimed at getting rid of the pathology that caused this violation. The medication for hand tremors includes anticonvulsants,…

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Tremor of arms treatment at home.

Tremor of arms treatment at home.

For the first time, faced with such a phenomenon as tremor of hands, a person begins to worry and get nervous. This behavior can only strengthen shaking. It should be understood that jittering does not always indicate a serious ailment, it can often be a consequence of hypothermia, overwork, overheating, emotional overstrain. Therefore, noticing that the hands are shaking, in the first turn, it is necessary to remain calm. Often, the removal of the manifestations of tremor of the hands…

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Diagnosis of nodal goiter

Diagnosis of nodal goiter

The primary diagnosis of nodular goiter is carried out by an endocrinologist by palpation of the thyroid gland. To confirm and clarify the nature of nodal education, the next stage is usually the ultrasound of the thyroid gland. The presence of palpable nodular goiter, whose size, according to ultrasound, exceeds 1 cm, serves as an indication for a fine needle aspiration biopsy. Puncture biopsy of the nodes makes it possible to verify the morphological (cytologic) diagnosis, to distinguish benign nodal…

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