Secondary hypogonadism

Secondary hypogonadism

Secondary hypogonadism Secondary hypogonadism is a syndrome caused by a decrease in the production of gonadotropic hormones of the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in a sharp decrease in estrogen secretion by the ovaries, and characterized by amenorrhea, the reverse development of secondary sexual characteristics, hypoplasia of the external genital organs and the uterus. Etiology and pathogenesis. The cause of secondary hypogonadism can be diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system, accompanied by a violation of the relationship between the hypothalamus hypothalamus and…

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Primary hypogonadism

Primary hypogonadism

Primary hypogonadism Primary hypogonadism is a syndrome caused by the direct effect of the pathological process on ovarian function, as a result of which a sharp decrease in estrogen secretion occurs. Etiology. Primary ovarian failure may occur as a result of congenital disorders of sexual differentiation (gonadal dysgenesis), damage to the ovaries by an infectious process (epidemic parotitis, syphilis, tuberculosis, etc.), surgical removal of the ovaries, etc. Pathogenesis. The basis of the pathogenesis of primary hypogonadism is a decrease in…

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Pathological menopause

Pathological menopause

Pathological menopause Climax – a normal physiological state of the body, the transition from reproductive period to menopause. It is caused by the age-related involutional rearrangement in the higher parts of the central nervous system, which leads to a violation of the cyclical nature and intensity of the secretion of gonadotropic hormones by the pituitary gland, as a result of which the function of the sex glands is insufficient. Climacteric neurosis and dysfunctional uterine bleeding include pathological climax. Climacteric neurosis…

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Early puberty

Early puberty

Early puberty Stein-Leventhal syndrome is characterized by menstrual disorders, infertility, bilateral ovarian enlargement, hirsutism in the female phenotype. The syndrome occurs in 1.45–2.8% of all gynecological diseases; it occurs in women more often at the age of 20–30 years. Etiology. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. Rather, a polycystic change in the ovaries is a stereotypical response of the organism to various pathological states. Polycystic changes in the ovaries can occur, for example, in diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system,…

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Hormonally active ovarian tumors

Hormonally active ovarian tumors

Hormonally active ovarian tumors Ovarian granulocellular tumor is a tumor arising from the granulosa cells of the follicles or from embryonic remnants of granulosa cells that are not associated with the follicles. Tecoma is a tumor arising from a specialized cortical stroma (theca) of the ovaries. Usually, these tumors produce mainly estrogens, but in some cases androgens Depending on the prevalence of tumor production of estro genes or androgens, estrogen-producing (femme-generating) and androgen-producing (virilizing) ovarian tumors are distinguished. Granulocytoid tumors…

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Arrhenoblastoma

Arrhenoblastoma

Arrhenoblastoma Arrhenoblastoma is a tumor emanating from the male elements of the female gonad. It is the most common virilizing ovarian tumor. Arrhenoblastoma develops at any age, often in childbearing. Etiology. The cause of the disease is unknown. Pathogenesis. Symptoms of the disease are caused by hyperproduction of androgens (mostly testosterone) by the tumor. An excess of androgens inhibits the production of follicle-stimulating hormone by the pituitary gland, which in turn leads to a decrease in the formation of estrogen…

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Male Genital Gland Disease

Male Genital Gland Disease

Male Genital Gland Disease The testicles are a paired glandular organ located in the moson ke. In men, the length of the testicle is 3-5 cm, width – 2-3 cm, and weight – 15-30 g. The testicles are covered with three membranes: the vaginal, located outside, albuminous and, finally, vascular, immediately adjacent to the parenchyma of the testicles. The connective tissue septa of the daughter separating the testicular parenchyma into many lobules deviate from the tunica albuginea. In each lobule…

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Primary hypogonadism

Primary hypogonadism

Primary hypogonadism Primary hypogonadism is a syndrome caused by the direct effect of the pathological process on the testicular parenchyma. Etiology. The causes of primary hypogonadism can be congenital and acquired. Congenital causes of testicular dysfunction include dysgenesis of the seminiferous tubules. (Klinefelter syndrome), dysgenesis or aplasia of testicles, aplasia of germinal tissue. Acquired testicular dysfunction occurs due to trauma, surgical castration, tuberculosis, complications after orchitis on the basis of acute infections (epidemic parotitis, etc.), syphilis, gonorrhea, the effects of…

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Secondary hypogonadism

Secondary hypogonadism

Secondary hypogonadism Secondary hypogonadism – a syndrome that occurs mainly due to hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency, leading to a decrease in the production of gonadotropic hormones, followed by a decrease in the secretion of androgens. Etiology. The causes of secondary hypogonadism can be traumatic injury or pituitary tumor, genetic nanism, diseases leading to hormonal imbalance (hypothyroidism, diabetes, etc.), severe somatic diseases, etc. Pathogenesis. The pathogenesis of secondary hypogonadism is based on insufficient production of gonadotropic hormones with a subsequent decrease in the…

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Cryptorchidism

Cryptorchidism

Cryptorchidism True cryptorchidism – congenital dystopia of the testicles, their location outside the scrotum. In true cryptorchidism, the testicle is permanently located in the inguinal canal or abdominal cavity. When false cryptorchidism in the inguinal canal is located under the visceral testicle, which is easily moved by the hand examining the scrotum. Cryptorchidism can be unilateral or bilateral. One-sided cryptorchidism occurs 4 times more often than double-sided. Cryptorchidism can be an independent disease or act as a symptom of a…

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