The information in this section should not be used for self-diagnosis or self-treatment. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, only the attending physician should prescribe diagnostic tests. For diagnosis and proper treatment, you should contact your doctor.
Problematic skin – the causes of occurrence, in which diseases it occurs, diagnosis and methods of treatment.
In dermatology, the stable term “problem skin” is used to refer to a well-defined range of cosmetic problems: first of all, it is increased skin greasiness and related problems, as well as dry skin and its age-related changes.
In a broad sense, “problem skin” is any skin with cosmetic defects caused by external (environmental) or internal (disease) factors.
This expression also means the presence of wrinkles and stretch marks, age spots and freckles, warts, scars, scars, spider veins, fungal infections, pallor or redness, etc.
Problematic skin can appear in adolescence and be the result of hormonal changes in the body or (if we are talking about an adult) be an indicator of certain diseases.
Types of problem skin
Oily skin is skin with a characteristic greasy sheen caused by hypersecretion of the sebaceous glands. The pores of oily skin are enlarged and usually clogged with sebum and impurities (so-called “comedones”). Often acne (acne) appears on oily skin – inflammation of the hair follicle and sebaceous gland or their varieties – boils (when the surrounding tissue is involved in the inflammation process). On the face, the T-zone is most prone to acne – the forehead, nose, and chin. As a rule, the sebaceous glands are more active in these areas. On the body, acne most often appears in the space between the shoulder blades or in the triceps area.
What is the appearance of acne.
- Pimples and excess male pattern hair in women: a possible cause is hyperandrogenism. It is necessary to examine the level of sex hormones.
- Acne in pregnant women is most often associated with hormonal changes in the body.
- White rashes in infants may be associated with an excess of hormones in mother’s milk. In this case, you need to consult a pediatrician.
- A large number of pores clogged with sebaceous secretion, not only on the face, but also on the body, may indicate a reduced function of the thyroid gland. The diagnosis is made by an endocrinologist.
Dry skin. Xerosis, or dry skin, is a problem associated with reduced moisture content in the stratum corneum of the epidermis. In such skin, metabolism (metabolic processes) slows down. This disrupts its barrier function. The skin becomes sensitive to external factors, quickly loses its elasticity.
Dry facial skin tends to be outside of the T-zone. On the body, dryness often affects the skin of the abdomen, lower back, and legs.
Combination skin. With this type of skin, the areas of greatest activity of the sebaceous glands are glossy with sebum, the remaining areas can be dry, thinned, prone to wrinkles and vulnerable to external factors.
Age skin. Most often, this is called dry, thinned skin with reduced turgor. Signs of age-related changes can be not only wrinkles, but also hyperpigmentation, areas of uneven pigmentation, vascular spots, etc.
What diseases cause problematic skin
Oily skin prone to acne is not necessarily associated with a pathological process. Often this is a “calling card” of adolescence (13-15) years. In adults, this problem requires more attention, as it can be caused by endocrine disorders (for example, diseases of the thyroid gland or pituitary gland), diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, dietary errors, abuse of fatty foods and simple carbohydrates (foods containing sugar in large quantities) .
Common pathologies that provoke oily skin:
- liver disease;
- hyperandrogenism (increased production of male hormones);
- hypertrichosis (excessive hair growth);
You should be especially wary of the appearance of acne in childhood (from two to seven years) years. In this case, tumor formations of the adrenal glands should be excluded.
The problem of dry skin can be age-related (appears in women during menopause), be permanent, or be associated with seasonal climatic fluctuations, etc. However, sometimes dry skin can be caused by malnutrition (in particular, a lack of vitamins A and E), smoking, coffee abuse, taking certain medications (for example, diuretics). But do not forget that such a skin condition can be one of the symptoms of serious diseases, such as diabetes, allergies, and a number of severe chronic skin diseases.
“Aging skin” can appear not only as natural aging, but also as a result of certain diseases. Diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, diseases of the sex glands, hypothalamic-pituitary syndrome, pulmonary pathologies that cause oxygen starvation of the skin are traditionally leading in the list of provocative diseases.
Which doctor should I contact with problem skin?
For initial diagnosis, contact a dermatovenereologist or therapist. Perhaps, after collecting anamnesis and receiving diagnostic results, you will be referred to other specialists – an endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, surgeon or allergist.
Diagnostics and examinations
Most often, finding out the cause of problem skin begins with standard laboratory tests – a clinical and biochemical blood test.