The failure of the thyroid gland, accompanied by a violation of its hormones in the direction of reducing their production (a deficiency of thyroxin and triiodothyronine), leads to a slowing down of metabolic processes occurring in the human body. Reduced function of the gland is characterized by a decrease in the formation of heat and energy. Problems in the violation of the thyroid gland and the lack of its hormones often do not make itself felt for a long time, since the symptoms of the disruption of its functions develop slowly enough, can be nonspecific and proceed secretly masking for a number of other diseases. This circumstance often leads to erroneous diagnosis and, consequently, to improper treatment.
Clinically, hypothyroidism is divided into primary (manifested with lesions of the thyroid gland), secondary (arising from lesions of the pituitary gland) and tertiary (associated with hypothalamic problems – hypothalamic).
The causes of primary hypothyroidism most often become thyroiditis in the late stage, when after inflammation of the gland occurs sclerosis, iodine deficiency (usually observed in endemic areas) and states after radiation therapy or surgical removal of the gland (tumors, goiter).
Hypothyroidism can provoke anemia and secondary immunodeficiency.
On the part of the cardiovascular system, a slowing of the heart rate with a decrease in heart rate (below 55) is noted, which can be accompanied by darkening in the eyes and even loss of consciousness (usually with a sharp rise). At the onset of hypothyroidism, paradoxical symptoms can be observed, characterized by a sympathetic adrenal crisis (paroxysmal heart rate increase). In the final stage of hypothyroidism, myocardial dystrophy and heart failure often develop.
The skin becomes pale, dry and cold to the touch. A person is persecuted by a constant feeling of freezing. Nail plates and hair grow dull and brittle. Typical is the loss of eyebrows in the outer region, alopecia (alopecia) is possible.
In the subcutaneous tissue of the limbs and the face, edema appears dense to the touch and poorly retracted by diuretics. Puffiness also affects the vocal cords, making the patient’s voice low and deaf. There may be a myxedema swelling, spreading to the nasal mucosa, making it difficult for the nose to breathe and the middle ear, reducing the hearing.