True cryptorchidism – congenital dystopia of the testicles, their location outside the scrotum. In true cryptorchidism, the testicle is permanently located in the inguinal canal or abdominal cavity.
When false cryptorchidism in the inguinal canal is located under the visceral testicle, which is easily moved by the hand examining the scrotum.
Cryptorchidism can be unilateral or bilateral. One-sided cryptorchidism occurs 4 times more often than double-sided.
Cryptorchidism can be an independent disease or act as a symptom of a number of diseases (false male hermaphroditism, Klinefelter syndrome, Down syndrome, adiposogenital dystrophy, etc.).
The frequency of cryptorchidism on average ranges from 0.18 to 2.6%.
Etiology and pathogenesis. The cause of cryptorchidism has not been established. The pathogenesis of the disease is associated with pathology in the chromosomal set (absence of the Y chromosome cell in the cell nucleus), deficiency of hormonal factors (androgens, maternal chorionegonadotropin, fetal luteinizing hormone, etc.) and the influence of physical, chemical and infectious teratogenic factors. All these factors together or separately can lead to a delay in intrauterine development, an abnormal development of the connective tissue of the fetus, followed by a delay in the development of the inguinal cord and the formation of fibrous obstacles along the descending testicle. The delay in the development of the inguinal cord and the pathology of the tissues surrounding the testicle create conditions for its incomplete and perverted lowering (ectopia or retention).
The genesis of false cryptorchidism is associated with an increased reflex m. cremaster in boys before puberty.
Pathological anatomy. The histological structure of the non-descending testicles under the age of 1-2 years in most patients is about the same as that of normal ones. In subsequent years, stroma sclerosis, atrophy and desolation of convoluted canals, cessation of differentiation of the spermatogenic epithelium are noted. In adults, the testicles that do not descend into the scrotum often detect malignant tumors.