Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is manifested by high blood sugar levels due to insufficient insulin exposure. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas. In diabetes mellitus, it is either completely absent (type I diabetes, or insulin-dependent diabetes), or the body’s cells do not respond to it enough (type II diabetes, or insulin-independent diabetes). Insulin is a hormone that regulates the metabolism, primarily of carbohydrates (sugars), but also fats and proteins. In diabetes due to insufficient insulin exposure, a complex metabolic disorder occurs, the blood sugar level increases (hyperglycemia), sugar is excreted in the urine. (glucosuria), in the blood appear acidic products of impaired fat burning – ketone bodies (ketoacidosis).

The main symptoms of diabetes are high thirst, frequent urination with a lot of urine, and sometimes dehydration (dehydration). Some signs of diabetes of the first and second type are different.

Diabetes is a type of fat metabolism with the risk of loss of consciousness (coma) or patient death.

Type II diabetes, on the contrary, arises gradually, because insulin is not completely absent, but it is not enough for the needs of the organism, the cells are not able to use it. The symptoms of the disease do not manifest themselves so clearly, the disease creeps in unnoticed, often diabetes mellitus is detected by a random blood or urine test during a routine examination or during a hospital stay for some other reason. In addition, type II diabetes can manifest itself with frequent infections, especially urinary tract infections, and intense thirst. Weight loss is not so common, and in obese people (who have a lot of this type of diabetes), it can be overlooked.

The diagnosis of diabetes is made on the basis of a blood test for the sugar content (glycemia), in controversial cases – after the administration of glucose.

Treatment depends on the type of diabetes. Type I diabetes should always be treated with insulin, compensating for its absence in the body. Type II diabetes can first be treated with a diet, and if this treatment is deficient, tablets {antidiabetic oral preparations, ie, taken orally) are added ; Subsequently, according to indications, insulin may be used (in this phase, most of the cells are depleted and insulin is completely absent).

The basis of diabetes treatment are diet and treatment regimen. The diet should be made for each patient individually, depending on body weight, age, physical activity, and taking into account whether he needs to lose weight or get better. The main purpose of a diet for diabetics is to maintain blood sugar levels to the extent that corresponds to the level of a healthy person, as well as the level of fat in the blood and cholesterol. In addition, it is important that this diet is diverse and contains a sufficient amount of essential nutrients – proteins, mineral salts and vitamins. At the same time, it must provide such amount of energy so that the weight of the patient’s body approaches the ideal and has been maintained at this level for a long time. Diet must comply with the principles of nutrition.

Carbohydrates (saccharides) should be maximally represented by complex carbohydrates (starches), food should contain a sufficient amount of fiber (fibers), which prevents the rapid absorption of carbohydrates and the rapid rise of blood glucose after eating. Simple carbohydrates (glucose) are absorbed instantly and cause sugar levels to rise. blood.

Fats should be predominantly of plant origin, the amount of cholesterol in food must be regulated depending on its level in the blood, the diet should not lead to an increase in cholesterol levels above the critical level.

Proteins should be 15-20%, but their total daily dose may not exceed 1 g per 1 kg of body weight. For teenagers and pregnant women, the required dose of protein is increased to 1.5 g per kg of weight per day. Previously prescribed high protein diets can lead to kidney damage.

local_offerevent_note December 28, 2019

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