Diseases of the thyroid gland

Thyroid disease must be taken very seriously. In the absence of adequate treatment, they can cause the development of complications, including life-threatening conditions (in particular, hypothyroid coma, thyrotoxic crisis). Therefore, at the slightest suspicion of a problem with the thyroid gland, do not hesitate to contact an endocrinologist for diagnosis and treatment.


When the thyroid gland is healthy, all organs work in harmony. But it happens that its activity decreases, which is accompanied by a decrease in the level of hormones. This condition is called hypothyroidism.

Hypothyroidism is a clinical syndrome of thyroid disease. With hypothyroidism, the level of thyroid hormones T3 ( triiodothyronine ) and T4 (thyroxine) decreases , and the level of TSH (pituitary hormone) rises.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism:

1) Depression and apathy, drowsiness, weakness, fatigue, tearfulness, insomnia, memory impairment and concentration;

2) poor cold tolerance;

3) muscle weakness;

4) increased dryness of the skin, as well as brittle nails and hair loss;

5) swelling of the face, feet and hands, characterized by noticeable density;

6) disruptions in the process of lipid metabolism, an increase in cholesterol;

7) weight gain, and it is not possible to lose those extra pounds;

8) violation of the process of hematopoiesis (anemia);

9) violation of glucose tolerance, possibly even the development of secondary diabetes mellitus;

10) bradycardia, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, shortness of breath;

11) decreased appetite;

12) excessive flatulence and constipation;

13) violation of the menstrual cycle, infertility is possible, and in menopause, frequent uterine bleeding.

Distinguish between primary and secondary hypothyroidism :

Primary hypothyroidism is caused by the pathology of the thyroid gland itself, as a result of which the production of hormones decreases;

Secondary hypothyroidism is associated with a malfunction of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, which regulates the production of thyroid hormones (thyroid hormones).

Most often, primary hypothyroidism occurs against the background of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis – inflammation of the thyroid gland associated with immune disorders (formation of autoantibodies ).

Other reasons for the development of primary hypothyroidism: congenital hypoplasia (decrease) and aplasia of the thyroid gland; hereditary defects in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones; undergone surgery on the thyroid gland, treatment of toxic goiter with radioactive iodine and ionizing radiation of the thyroid gland ( post-radiation hypothyroidism), insufficient intake of iodine in the body with food, exposure to certain medications; tumors, acute and chronic infections of the thyroid gland.

Secondary hypothyroidism can occur with inflammation, swelling, hemorrhage, necrosis, or injury to the pituitary gland and / or hypothalamus, or when the pituitary gland is removed.

Graves’ disease .

She is a diffuse toxic goiter, she is Graves’ disease. An autoimmune disease, which results in “poisoning” with an excess of its own hormones, thyrotoxicosis.

3.3 Thyrotoxicosis.

Thyrotoxicosis is a syndrome associated with excessive production of thyroid hormones.

We can say that thyrotoxicosis is the opposite of hypothyroidism: if, with a decrease in the level of thyroid hormones, all processes in the body slow down, then with their increase, the metabolism accelerates and the organs begin to function with an increased load.

The reasons:

1) in more than 80% of cases, the cause of thyrotoxicosis is diffuse toxic goiter (Graves’ disease) – a disease in which the thyroid gland increases in size and begins to produce an excess amount of hormones.

2) multiple nodes, the cells of which secrete an excess amount of hormones.

3) toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland ( Plummer’s disease ) – a disease characterized by the presence of a single node (adenoma) that secretes a large amount of hormones.

Less commonly, thyrotoxicosis are guilty of:

1) increased iodine intake;

2) overdose of thyroid hormones in the treatment of hypothyroidism;

3) diseases of the pituitary gland.

An excess amount of thyroid hormones leads to metabolic disorders, changes in the cardiovascular, digestive, nervous and other systems of the body.

When thyrotoxicosis is concerned:

1) changes in the psyche: tearfulness, excessive excitability, rapid mood swings, insomnia;

2) increased sweating, a feeling of heat;

3) weakness;

4) increased heart rate, a feeling of interruptions in the heart, shortness of breath;

5) trembling, which is especially noticeable on the fingers of outstretched arms;

6) bulging eyes, puffiness and the appearance of bags under the eyes, swelling of the eyelids, inability to concentrate on the subject, double vision;

7) weight loss;

8) increased appetite;

9) an increase in the size of the liver, in some cases jaundice is noted;

10) the patient quickly gets tired of the usual physical activity, muscle weakness develops;

11) diarrhea.

A dangerous complication of hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis) is a thyrotoxic crisis – a life-threatening condition. It can be provoked by: untreated hyperthyroidism, severe mental trauma, infections, surgical interventions.

With a thyrotoxic crisis, a person experiences significant excitement, tremors (tremors) of the arms and legs, vomiting and diarrhea, body temperature rises to 40C, blood pressure rises significantly, heart rhythm may be disturbed, urine formation is disturbed (up to its complete termination – anuria). Then there is a loss of consciousness, the patient falls into a coma.

At-risk groups:

Since thyrotoxicosis refers to diseases provoked by an attack of the immune system on its own cells and tissues, then the risk group for the development of this disease includes people who have patients with

damage to the thyroid gland, or other autoimmune diseases. More

one big risk group is people whose diet is oversaturated with iodine. Mostly these are persons whose diet is based on seafood. The number of such patients is much higher in regions with similar eating habits.

local_offerevent_note November 2, 2020

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