To date, there are three main states of thyroid functional activity.
Euthyroidism is a thyroid condition characterized by complete production and excretion of thyroid hormones, in which all functions of the controlled organs and systems of the human body work in a normal mode, and the observed pathologies concern the thyroid itself.
Hypothyroidism is a condition of the thyroid gland, in which the lack of its hormones causes a decrease in all or some metabolic processes in the organs and systems of the human body that depend on them, proceeding with energy insufficiency.
Hyperthyroidism is a condition of the thyroid gland, determined by a violation of the body, in which the increased activity of the gland leads to excessive amounts of hormones being injected into the bloodstream, resulting in an increase in metabolic processes in the subordinate organs and systems of the human body.
Functional activity of the thyroid is regulated by a thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin, TSH), which produces the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Often it is the indices of the production of this hormone that indicate the pathology of the thyroid gland. For example, if the level of TSH is elevated, the causes and external signs of abnormal thyroid function are most likely associated with hypothyroidism and, conversely, a lowered TSH level, usually indicates hyperthyroidism. However, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are not the only diseases of the thyroid gland. Modern medicine also distinguishes autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland, its crawfish and malignant formations, the speech of which will be discussed below.